# Can it do this way ?

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## Re: Can it do this way ?

 Op 8-9-2020 om 04:22 schreef Richard O'Keefe: There are two quite different questions. (1) Where may dashes occur in a real ISBN-10? (2) What does Exercism require in the specification and check in the test cases? For (1) the rules are Each ISBN consists of 5 elements with each section being separated by spaces or hyphens. Three of the five elements may be of varying length: Prefix element – currently this can only be either 978 or 979. It is always 3 digits in length Registration group element – this identifies the particular country, geographical region, or language area participating in the ISBN system. This element may be between 1 and 5 digits in length Registrant element - this identifies the particular publisher or imprint. This may be up to 7 digits in length Publication element – this identifies the particular edition and format of a specific title. This may be up to 6 digits in length Check digit – this is always the final single digit that mathematically validates the rest of the number. It is calculated using a Modulus 10 system with alternate weights of 1 and 3. An ISBN-10 does not have the three-digit prefix.  So we have   [0-9]{1,5}   -- prefix   [0-9]{1,7}   -- registrant   [0-9]{1,6}   -- publication   [0-9X]       -- check digit As an examplw, "Standard C++ IOStreams and Locales" by Langer & Kreft has ISBN-10 0-201-18395-1 ISBN-13 9780201183955 so I shall assume the separators are optional. /^[0-9]{1,5}[- ]?[0-9]{1,7}[- ]?[0-9]{1,6}[- ]?[0-9X]\$/ Of course the elements cannot all have their maximum length at the same time.  In AWK I would write    x = a_putative_ISBN_10    y = x    gsub(/[- ]+/, "", y)    if (x ~ /^[0-9]{1,5}[- ]?[0-9]{1,7}[- ]?[0-9]{1,6}[- ]?[0-9X]\$/ \     && y ~ /^[0-9]{9,9}[0-9X]\$/ \    ) {        x *might* be valid, we still need to check the checksum    } For (2), there appear to be no restrictions on where dashes may occur or how many: "These may be communicated with or without hyphens". Exercism doesn't allow spaces. Regular expressions are elegant in their own way, BUT for this problem they are (a) excessive, (b) inefficient, and (c) insufficient.    digit count := 0.    check sum := 0.    for each character c of the string        if c is not a hyphen then            if c is a digit then                digit value := c's value as a digit            else if c is X and digit count = 9 then                digit value := 10            else                return false.            digit count := digit count + 1.            if digit count > 10 then return false.            check sum := (11 - digit count) * digit value + check sum.     return check sum mod 11 is zero. Part of the insight here is "don't DO it, just PRETEND you did." That is, instead of copying the string without the hyphens, just ignore the hyphens as they turn up. Another part is "if you are only going to use it once, don't store it." That is, we need a digit's value just once, in the update to check sum, so we should compute it just before we need it, not store it. Now the pseudo-code above is classic sequential imperative coding. Classic functional coding does something like    let no_dashes = filter (/= '-') (explode string) in    length no_dashes = 10 and    let check = last no_dashes in    (is_digit check or check = 'X') and    all is_digit (take 9 no_dashes) and    let xval c = if x = 'X' then 10 else digit_value c in    dot (map xval no_dashes) [10,9..1]) mod 11 = 0 This pseudo-code translates nicely to Smalltalk too. You might want to add SequenceableCollection>>   with: other inject: initial into: aBlock     |r|     r := initial.     self with: other do: [:x :y |       r := aBlock value: r value: x value: y].     ^r   dot: other     ^self with: other inject: 0 into: [:acc :x :y | x*y + acc] (These methods are so obvious that it would be absurd to claim any intellectual property rights to them.) I also have "fusion" methods like SequenceableCollection>> from: start to: finish allSatisfy: testBlock   self from: start to: finish do: [:each |     (aBlock value: each) ifFalse: [^false]].   ^true so that ((seq copyFrom: a to: z) allSatisfy: blk) can be done as (seq from: a to: z allSatisfy: blk) without making a copy. Fusion methods are useful because Smalltall compilers don't work as hard at eliminating intermediate data structures as functional language compilers.  (Having other priorities.)    (isdigit (last no_dashes            return false if digit count > 10.            Thanks for letting me see this. But still I wonder if this is really the OOP way and if that function does more then 1 thing. It looks to me that its iterating trrough the string. Calculating the crc and checking it. I learned that it is a good thing that a function and a class does only 1 thing. Roelof
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## Re: Can it do this way ?

 Hi Richard and Roelof,thanks for your comprehensive answer. I brought up Regex only to point out alternative solutions. Another one is the following using transducers, where Tee works like the tee command from the command line.IsbnValidator>>isValidIsbn: aString  | length countChars separators getSeparators lastChar getLastChar filterDigits computeCheckSum checkSum |  "Count number of characters"  length := 0.  countChars := [:count :char | length := length + 1] init: length.  "Get non-digit characters"  separators := Set new  getSeparators := separators <~ #isDigit remove.  "Get last character"  lastChar := nil.  getLastChar := [:prev :char | lastChar := char ] init: lastChar.  "Get digits"  filterDigits := #isDigit filter.  "Calculate check sum"  computeCheckSum := ([:sum :index :digit | sum + index * digit value] init: 0) completing: #\\ .  "Compute"  checkSum := aString    transduce: (Tee to: countChars) * (Tee to: getSeparators) * (Tee to: getLastChar) * filterDigits    reduce: computeCheckSum    init: 0.  "Check validity"  ^((length = 10 or: [length = 13])    and: [separators = Set with: \$-])    and: [checkSum = (lastChar = \$X ifTrue: [10]  ifFalse: [lastChar value])]Kind regards,SteffenAm .09.2020, 08:30 Uhr, schrieb Roelof Wobben via Pharo-users <[hidden email]>: Op 8-9-2020 om 04:22 schreef Richard O'Keefe: There are two quite different questions. (1) Where may dashes occur in a real ISBN-10? (2) What does Exercism require in the specification and check in the test cases? For (1) the rules are Each ISBN consists of 5 elements with each section being separated by spaces or hyphens. Three of the five elements may be of varying length: Prefix element – currently this can only be either 978 or 979. It is always 3 digits in length Registration group element – this identifies the particular country, geographical region, or language area participating in the ISBN system. This element may be between 1 and 5 digits in length Registrant element - this identifies the particular publisher or imprint. This may be up to 7 digits in length Publication element – this identifies the particular edition and format of a specific title. This may be up to 6 digits in length Check digit – this is always the final single digit that mathematically validates the rest of the number. It is calculated using a Modulus 10 system with alternate weights of 1 and 3. An ISBN-10 does not have the three-digit prefix.  So we have   [0-9]{1,5}   -- prefix   [0-9]{1,7}   -- registrant   [0-9]{1,6}   -- publication   [0-9X]       -- check digit As an examplw, "Standard C++ IOStreams and Locales" by Langer & Kreft has ISBN-10 0-201-18395-1 ISBN-13 9780201183955 so I shall assume the separators are optional. /^[0-9]{1,5}[- ]?[0-9]{1,7}[- ]?[0-9]{1,6}[- ]?[0-9X]\$/ Of course the elements cannot all have their maximum length at the same time.  In AWK I would write    x = a_putative_ISBN_10    y = x    gsub(/[- ]+/, "", y)    if (x ~ /^[0-9]{1,5}[- ]?[0-9]{1,7}[- ]?[0-9]{1,6}[- ]?[0-9X]\$/ \     && y ~ /^[0-9]{9,9}[0-9X]\$/ \    ) {        x *might* be valid, we still need to check the checksum    } For (2), there appear to be no restrictions on where dashes may occur or how many: "These may be communicated with or without hyphens". Exercism doesn't allow spaces. Regular expressions are elegant in their own way, BUT for this problem they are (a) excessive, (b) inefficient, and (c) insufficient.    digit count := 0.    check sum := 0.    for each character c of the string        if c is not a hyphen then            if c is a digit then                digit value := c's value as a digit            else if c is X and digit count = 9 then                digit value := 10            else                return false.            digit count := digit count + 1.            if digit count > 10 then return false.            check sum := (11 - digit count) * digit value + check sum.     return check sum mod 11 is zero. Part of the insight here is "don't DO it, just PRETEND you did." That is, instead of copying the string without the hyphens, just ignore the hyphens as they turn up. Another part is "if you are only going to use it once, don't store it." That is, we need a digit's value just once, in the update to check sum, so we should compute it just before we need it, not store it. Now the pseudo-code above is classic sequential imperative coding. Classic functional coding does something like    let no_dashes = filter (/= '-') (explode string) in    length no_dashes = 10 and    let check = last no_dashes in    (is_digit check or check = 'X') and    all is_digit (take 9 no_dashes) and    let xval c = if x = 'X' then 10 else digit_value c in    dot (map xval no_dashes) [10,9..1]) mod 11 = 0 This pseudo-code translates nicely to Smalltalk too. You might want to add SequenceableCollection>>   with: other inject: initial into: aBlock     |r|     r := initial.     self with: other do: [:x :y |       r := aBlock value: r value: x value: y].     ^r   dot: other     ^self with: other inject: 0 into: [:acc :x :y | x*y + acc] (These methods are so obvious that it would be absurd to claim any intellectual property rights to them.) I also have "fusion" methods like SequenceableCollection>> from: start to: finish allSatisfy: testBlock   self from: start to: finish do: [:each |     (aBlock value: each) ifFalse: [^false]].   ^true so that ((seq copyFrom: a to: z) allSatisfy: blk) can be done as (seq from: a to: z allSatisfy: blk) without making a copy. Fusion methods are useful because Smalltall compilers don't work as hard at eliminating intermediate data structures as functional language compilers.  (Having other priorities.)    (isdigit (last no_dashes            return false if digit count > 10.            Thanks for letting me see this. But still I wonder if this is really the OOP way and if that function does more then 1 thing. It looks to me that its iterating trrough the string. Calculating the crc and checking it. I learned that it is a good thing that a function and a class does only 1 thing. Roelof
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## Re: Can it do this way ?

 In reply to this post by Pharo Smalltalk Users mailing list Op 8-9-2020 om 08:30 schreef Roelof Wobben: Op 8-9-2020 om 04:22 schreef Richard O'Keefe: There are two quite different questions. (1) Where may dashes occur in a real ISBN-10? (2) What does Exercism require in the specification and check in the test cases? For (1) the rules are Each ISBN consists of 5 elements with each section being separated by spaces or hyphens. Three of the five elements may be of varying length: Prefix element – currently this can only be either 978 or 979. It is always 3 digits in length Registration group element – this identifies the particular country, geographical region, or language area participating in the ISBN system. This element may be between 1 and 5 digits in length Registrant element - this identifies the particular publisher or imprint. This may be up to 7 digits in length Publication element – this identifies the particular edition and format of a specific title. This may be up to 6 digits in length Check digit – this is always the final single digit that mathematically validates the rest of the number. It is calculated using a Modulus 10 system with alternate weights of 1 and 3. An ISBN-10 does not have the three-digit prefix.  So we have   [0-9]{1,5}   -- prefix   [0-9]{1,7}   -- registrant   [0-9]{1,6}   -- publication   [0-9X]       -- check digit As an examplw, "Standard C++ IOStreams and Locales" by Langer & Kreft has ISBN-10 0-201-18395-1 ISBN-13 9780201183955 so I shall assume the separators are optional. /^[0-9]{1,5}[- ]?[0-9]{1,7}[- ]?[0-9]{1,6}[- ]?[0-9X]\$/ Of course the elements cannot all have their maximum length at the same time.  In AWK I would write    x = a_putative_ISBN_10    y = x    gsub(/[- ]+/, "", y)    if (x ~ /^[0-9]{1,5}[- ]?[0-9]{1,7}[- ]?[0-9]{1,6}[- ]?[0-9X]\$/ \     && y ~ /^[0-9]{9,9}[0-9X]\$/ \    ) {        x *might* be valid, we still need to check the checksum    } For (2), there appear to be no restrictions on where dashes may occur or how many: "These may be communicated with or without hyphens". Exercism doesn't allow spaces. Regular expressions are elegant in their own way, BUT for this problem they are (a) excessive, (b) inefficient, and (c) insufficient.    digit count := 0.    check sum := 0.    for each character c of the string        if c is not a hyphen then            if c is a digit then                digit value := c's value as a digit            else if c is X and digit count = 9 then                digit value := 10            else                return false.            digit count := digit count + 1.            if digit count > 10 then return false.            check sum := (11 - digit count) * digit value + check sum.     return check sum mod 11 is zero. Part of the insight here is "don't DO it, just PRETEND you did." That is, instead of copying the string without the hyphens, just ignore the hyphens as they turn up. Another part is "if you are only going to use it once, don't store it." That is, we need a digit's value just once, in the update to check sum, so we should compute it just before we need it, not store it. Now the pseudo-code above is classic sequential imperative coding. Classic functional coding does something like    let no_dashes = filter (/= '-') (explode string) in    length no_dashes = 10 and    let check = last no_dashes in    (is_digit check or check = 'X') and    all is_digit (take 9 no_dashes) and    let xval c = if x = 'X' then 10 else digit_value c in    dot (map xval no_dashes) [10,9..1]) mod 11 = 0 This pseudo-code translates nicely to Smalltalk too. You might want to add SequenceableCollection>>   with: other inject: initial into: aBlock     |r|     r := initial.     self with: other do: [:x :y |       r := aBlock value: r value: x value: y].     ^r   dot: other     ^self with: other inject: 0 into: [:acc :x :y | x*y + acc] (These methods are so obvious that it would be absurd to claim any intellectual property rights to them.) I also have "fusion" methods like SequenceableCollection>> from: start to: finish allSatisfy: testBlock   self from: start to: finish do: [:each |     (aBlock value: each) ifFalse: [^false]].   ^true so that ((seq copyFrom: a to: z) allSatisfy: blk) can be done as (seq from: a to: z allSatisfy: blk) without making a copy. Fusion methods are useful because Smalltall compilers don't work as hard at eliminating intermediate data structures as functional language compilers.  (Having other priorities.)    (isdigit (last no_dashes            return false if digit count > 10.            Thanks for letting me see this. But still I wonder if this is really the OOP way and if that function does more then 1 thing. It looks to me that its iterating trrough the string. Calculating the crc and checking it. I learned that it is a good thing that a function and a class does only 1 thing. Roelof I learned on other oop languages that for mainibility it's needed that a class does one thing and a method does also one thing. So when software changes , you can easily make the changes.  Its I think called SOLID and I like that idea. So I try to make that also work in Pharo but it seems not so important. It's look like me that getting it work is more important. Roelof